Antitrust Law and Economics/

por GELLHORN, Ernest
[ Livros ]
Autores adicionais: Kovacic, William E. ; Autor
Motivo da edição:4. ed. Publicado por : West Group, (St. Paul, Estados Unidos:) Detalhes físicos: 520 p. ISBN:0314026835. Ano: 1994 Tipo de Material: Livros
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Chapter I. Restraints of Trade at Common Law
A. Contracts in Restraint of Trade
B. Monopoly and Conspiracy
C. Conclusion

Chapter II. The Antitrust Statutes
A. The Demand for Regulation
B. The Sherman Act
1.The Statute
2.Early Interpretations
C. The Clayton and Federal Trade Commission Acts
1.The Clayton Act
2. The Federal Trade Commission Act
D. Institutional Implications
1. Openended Substantive Commands
2. The Choice of Goals
3. Permeability of the Adjudication Process
4. Coexistence With Other Economic Regulatory Schemes and Theories of Economic Organization
5. Summary

Chapter III.Antitrust Economics (in a Nutshell)
A.Some Basic Explanations and Behavioral Assump-tions
1.The Demand Schedule
2.Profit—Maximizing Behavior by Firms
B.Basic Economic Modeis
1.Perfect Competition
3.Competition and Monopoly Compared
4.Monopolistic Competition
C.Current Developments

Chapter IV The Monopoly Problem
A.Monopoly Power
1. Product Market
2. Geographic Market
3. Federal Guidelines
4. Market Share Measurement and the Treatment of Particular Classes of Industry Participants
B.Monopolization: The Uses of Monopoly Power --
1.Classic Test
2. Alcoa
3. Post—Alcoa Developments
4. Remedies
5. Recent Applications
a.Predatory Pricing
b.Product Innovation
c.Refusals to Deal

Chapter IV. The Monopoly Problem—Continued
C.Attempts to Monopolize
Chapter V. Horizontal Restraints: The Evolution of Standards
A.The Economics of Carteis and Transaction Costs
B.Horizontal Agreements and the Structure of Legal Rules: The Relationship Between Per Se Rules and Reasonableness Standards
1.Early Developments
2.Development of the Rule of Reason
3.The Rise of the Per Se Approach
4.Current Developments
D.Market Aliocations and Production Controls
1.Purposes and Economic Effects
2. The Legal Standard E Summary

Chapter VI. Horizontal Restraints: Problems of Proof and Characterization
Evidence of an Agreement
1.The Requirement of an Agreement
2.The Evidentiary Requirements
a.Section 1 and the Endangerment of Overt Cartels
b.Modern Development of Formulas for Defining Concerted Action
c.Evidentiary Standards
d.Interdependence and "Plus Factors"

Chapter VI.Horizontal Restraints: Problems of Proof and Characterization —Continued
B.Problems of Characterization
1.Information Exchanges
a.Trade Associations
b.Verification and Exchange of Prices by Direct Rivais
c. Implications for Future Information-Sharing
2.Joint Ventures and the Application of the Rule of Reason
a.Characterizing the Venture and Evaluating Coiiateral Restraints
b.Treatment of Outside Entities
e.Recent Representative Iliustrations
d.Legislative Reforms

Chapter VII. The Oligopoly Problem
A. Economists and the Oligopoly Problem
B. Legal Approaehes to the Control of Oligopolies
1. Expanding the Definition of "Agreement" Under Section 1 of the Sherman Act
2. Section 2 of the Sherman Act
3. Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act
4.Invitations to Coilude
5.Merger Policy
6. Proposed Legislative Reforms
Chapter VIII. Vertical Restraints
Transaction Cost Economics and Vertical Relation-ship

Chapter VIII. Vertical Restraints—Continued
B.Restrictions on Distribution
1.Resale Price Maintenance (RPM)
2.Consignments and Distribution Through Agents
3.Territorial and Customer Restrictions
4.Unilateral and Concerted Action Distinguished: Substantive Principles and Evidentiary Standards
C.Limits on Supplier Power: Exclusionary Practices
1.Tying Arrangements
2.Exclusive Dealing

Chapter IX. Mergers
A. Tensions in Modern Merger Analysis
B. Competitive Effects Overview
1 Horizontal Mergers
2. Vertical Mergers
3. Conglomerate Mergers
C. The Sherman Act and Mergers Tending to Monopoly
D. The Enactment and Amendment of Section 7 of the Clayton Act
E. The Supreme Court and Merger Analysis Since 1950
1. Vertical Mergers
2. Horizontal Mergers
3. Conglomerate Mergers, Potential Competition, and Joint Ventures
E Government Merger Guidelines and Premerger Notification

Chapter IX. Mergers—Continued
1. Federal Merger Guidelines
2. State Merger Guidelines
3. Premerger Notification
G. Modern Lower Court Applications
1.Market Definition
2. Competitive Effects in Horizontal Mergers
3. Competitive Effects in Nonhorizontal Mergers
H. Conclusion

Chapter X. Patent and Intellectual Property Issues
A.An Introduction to Patents
B. Price, Territorial, and Use Restrictions
C. Settlement and Accumulation
D. Enforcements of Patents as an Antitrust Violation

Chapter XI Price Discrimination and the Robinson-Patman Act
A.The Origin and Enforcement of Section 2 of the Clayton Act
B.The Statute Analyzed
C.Injury to Competition
1.Primary Line Injury
2.Secondary Line Injury
1."Meeting Competition"
2.Cost Justification
3."Functional Availability"

Chapter XII. The Enforcement and Adjudication Process
A.Public Enforcement
1.The Federal Enforcement Agencies
2.Antitrust Enforcement by State Governments
B.Private Enforcement
1.Injury to Business or Property
2.Antitrust Injury
4.Direct Purchasers
C.Federal Judiciary

Chapter XIII. Limits on the Scope of the Antitrust System
A.Jurisdictional Restrictions
1.Interstate Commerce Requirement
2.Foreign Jurisdictional Barriers
B.The Effect of Government Intervention
1.Federal Regulation and Exemptions
a.Basic Framework of Exemptions
b.Specific lilustration: Organized Labor
2.State Regulation
a.State Action Immunity
b.Local Governments and Other Political Subdivisions
c. Preemption
3. Petitioning

Chapter XIV. The Changing Balance m Antitrust
Sherman Act
Clayton Act
Federal Trade Commission Act


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