Economics of regulation and antitrust/

por VISCUSI, W. Kip
[ Livros ] Motivo da edição:4. ed. Publicado por : MIT Press, (Cambridge, Inglaterra:) Detalhes físicos: 927 p. ISBN:026222075x. Ano: 2005 Tipo de Material: Livros
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Preface to the Fourth Edition

1 Introduction
The Rationale for Regulation and Antitrust Policies
Antitrust Regulation
The Changing Character of Antitrust Issues
Reasoning behind Antitrust Regulations
Econornic Regulation
Development of Economic Regulation
Facrors in Setting Rate Regulations
Health. Safety. and Environmental Regulatiuti
Role of the Courts
Criteria for Assessrnent
Questiuns and Frobiems
Recomniended Reading

2 The Making of a Regulation
State versus Federal Regulation: The Federalism Debate
Advantages of Federalism
Advantages ol. National Regulations
Produci Labeling Example
The Overlap of State and Federal Regulations
The Character of the Rulemaking Process
The Chronology of New Regulations
Nature of the Regulaturv Oversight Process
The Nixon und Foid Adininivations
The Cai-ter Administration
The Reagan Administi-ation
The BUSh Administration
The Clinton Administration
The George W. Bush Administration
Regulatorv Relorrn Legislation
Benefit-Cost Analvsts
Discounting Deferred Effects
Present Value
The Criteria Applied in the Oversight Process
Regulatory Success Stories
Promotion of Cost-Effective Regulation
Distortion of Benefit and Cost Estimates
The Regulatory Role of Price and Quality
The Impact of the Oversight Process
The Cost of Regulation
Other Measures of the Size of Regulation
The Character of Regulatory Oversight Actions
What Do Regulators Maximize?
The Capture Theory
Other Theories of Influence Patterns
Comprehensive Modeis of Regulatory Objectives
Questions and Problems
Appendix: Trends in Regulatory Agency Budgets and Staif

3 Introduction to Antitrust
Industrial Organzation
Federal Antitrust Laws
Enforcement and Remedies
Exçmptions from Antitrust
Summary and Overview of Part I
Appendix; Antitrust Statutes
Sherman Act
Clayton Act
Federal Trade Comniission Act

4 Efficiency and Technical Progress
Econornic Efficiency
Partial Equílibrium Welfare Tools
Monopoly-versus-Competition Example
Oil Industry Application
Some Complícations
Monopoly-Induced Waste
Estimates of the Welfare Loss from Monopoly
Technical Progress
Importance of Technological Change
A Model of R & D Rivairy
Questions and Problems

5 Oligopoly, Coilusion, and Antitrust
Game Theory
Example 1: Advertising Competition
Example 2: Compatihility of Standards
The Strategic Form of a Game
Nash Equilibrium
Oligopoly Theory
The Cournot Solution
Other Modeis of Oligopoly
Product Differentiation
A Theory of Collusion
Chalienges to Coilusion
Coilusion in Practice
Antitrust Law and Policy toward Price Fixing
Eeonomic Analysis of Legal Categories
Per Se Rule Cases
Tacit Collusion
Enforcemenr Policy
Questions and Problems
Carne Theory: Formal Definitions

6.Market Structure and Strategic Competition
Market Structure
Seale Economies
Entry Conditions
Dorninant Firm Theory
Static Anal ysis
Dynamic Analysis.: Limit Pricing
Strategic Competition
Liniit Pricing
lnvestment in Cosi-Reducing Capital
Raising Rivais' Costs
Preemption and Brand Proliferation
Questions and Problems

7 Mergers
Antitrust Laws and Merger Trends
Reasons for Mergers
Reducing Mana.gernent lnefficiencies
Horizontal Mergers
Benetits and Costs
Effects of Airline Mergers
U.S. Departrnent nt Justice Merger Guidelines.
Congiornerate Mergers
Potential Benefits
Anticompetitive Effects and Cases
Questions and Problems

8 Vertical Mergers and Vertical Restraints
Vertical Mergers
Anticompeti tive Effects
Cornrnitment and the Restoration of M:arket Power
Raising Rivais' Costs
Antitrust Law and Policy
Historical Development
Time Warner and Turner
Vertical Restraints
Exclusive Dealing
Antitrust Law and Policy
Modern Theories of Leveraging
Manufacturer-Retailer Restraints
Questions and Problems

9 Monopolization and Price Discrimination
Establishing Monopolization Claims
Measuring Monopoly Power
Assessing Intent to Monopolize
Development of Antitrust Case Law
1890-1940: Standard Oil and United States Steel
1940-1970: Alcoa and United Shoe Machinery
1970 to Present: Kodak, IBM, Microsoft, and Others
Predatory Pricing
Theories of Predatory Pricing
Efficiency Rationales
Antitrust Policy
The Areeda-Turner Rule and Other Single-Parameter Rules
The Brooke Case and the Two-Tier Rule
Recent Developments
Refusal to Deal and the Essential Facilities Doctrine
Essential Facilities Doctrine
Inteilectual Property Rights
Kodak and Monopoly Power in Aftermarkets
Microsoft Case
Network Externalities
Antitrust Case
Tying and Monopolization of the Browser Market
Maintenance of Monopoly in the Operating Systems Market
Rernedies and Harrn
Price Discrimination and the Robinson-Patman Act
Systernatic Discrimination
Unsystematic Discrimination
Questiuns and Problerns


10 Introduction to Econoniic Regulation
What Is Economic Regulation?
Instruments of Regulation
Control of Price
Control of Quantity
Control of Entry and Exit
Control of Other Variabies
Brief History of Economic Regulation
Formative Stages
Trends in Regulation
The Regulatory Process
Overview of the Regulatory Process
Regulatory Legislation
independent Regulatory Comniissions
Regulatory Procedures
The Theory of Regulation
Normative Analysis as a Positive Theory
Capture Theory
Economic Theory of Regulation
Testing Theories of Regulation
Summary and Overview of Part II

11 A Theory of lnterest Group Conipetition
Questions and Problerns
Theory of Natural Monopoly
The Natural Monopoly Problein
Perrnanent and Temporary Natural Monopoly
Subadditivitv and Multiproduct Monopoly
Alternative Policy Solutions
Ideal Pricing
Franchise Bidding
Actual Solutions
The Troublesome Case of a Natural Monopoly
Questions and Problenis

12 Natural Monopoly Regulation and Electric Power
Traditional Rate-of-Return Regulation
The Rate Case
Averch-Johnson Effect
Incentive Regulation
Performance Standards
Earnings Sharings
Price Caps
Yardstick Regulation
Rate Structure
FDC Pricing
Undue Discrirnination
Peak-Load Pricing
Costs of Power Production
Peak-Load Pricing Model
Regulation and Resiructuring of Electric Power
Historical, Technological. and Regulatory Background
Overview of Recent Legislation
Restructuring in California
Questions and Problems

13 Franchise Bidding and Cable Television
Theory of Franchise Bidding
Competition at the Bidding Stage
Contractual Arrangements for the Postbidding Stage
Assessment of Franchise Bidding
Cable Television
HistoricallRegulatory Background
Cable Television as a Natural Monopoly
Franchising Process
Assessment of Franchise Bidding
Rate Regulation
Is There a Role for Government Intervention?
Questions and Problems

14 Public Enterprise
General Background
Positive Theory of Public Enterprise
Managerial Model of a Firm
Managerial Model of a Private Enterprise
Managerial Model of a Public Enterprise
Comparison of Public and Private Enterprise
Municipal Electric Utilities
Pricing Behavior
Aliocative Efficiency Comparison
Productive Efficiency Comparison
Assessment of Private versus Public Utilities
Questions and Problems

15 Dynamic Issues in Natural Monopoly Regulation: Teleeommunieations
Transformation of a Natural Monopoly
Basis for Natural Monopoly Regulation
Sources of Natural Monopoly Transformation
Regulatory Response
Intercity Telecommunications Market
Telecommunications Adi of 1996
Separation of Regulated Monopolies and Conipettive Markets
Benefits and Costs of Separation
Breakup of AT&T
Questions and Problems

16 The Regulation of Potentially Competitive Markets: Theory and Estimation
Theory of Price and Entry/Exit Regulation
Direct Effects of Price and Entry/Exit Regulation: The Competitive Model 556
Direct Effects of Price and Entry/Exit Regularion: The Imperfcctly Conipetitive
Indirect Eifects of Price and Entry Regulation
Some Indir&ct Effects of Price and Exit Rcgulation
Regulation and innovation
Methods for Estimating the Effects of Regulation
Overview of Estimation Methods
Intertemporal Approach
Application: New York Stock Exchange
Intermarket Approach
Application: Advertising of Eyeglasses
Application: 44 Liquorinari Decision
Counterfactual Approach
Application: State Usury Laws
Measuring rhe Return to Price and Entry Restrictions: Taxicab Regulation
Questions and Problerns

17 Economic Regulation of Transportation: Surface Freight and Airlines
Transportation lndustrv
Surface Freight Transportation
Regulatory Hisiory
Description of Rcvulatory Practices
Effects of Regulation
Regulatory History
Descriptioii of Regulatory Practices
Effects of Regulation
Competition atd Antitrust Poiicy after Deregulation
Lessons from Regulation and Deregulation
Questions and Problems

18 Economic Regulation of Energy: Cnide 0i1 and Natural Gas
The Theory of Price Ceilings
Price and Quantity Regulation of the Crude Oil lndustry
Regulatory History
011. Prorationing
Regulatory Practices
Rationale for Prorationing
Solutions to lhe Comrnon Pool Problem
Effects of Prorationing
Mandatory Oil Impori Prograni
Regulatory Practices
Effects of Regulation
Crude Oil Price Controis
Regulatory Practices
Effects of Price Regulation
Price Regulation of the Natural Gas Industry
Regulatory History
Regulatory Practices
Effects of Price Regulatiõri
Transilion froni Regulation to Markets in the Transmission of Natural Gas
Questions and Problerns


19 Introduction: The Emergence of Health, Safety, and Environmental Regulation
Risk in Perspective
Measuring Mortality Risks
The Infeasibility of a No-Risk Society
Homeland Security
Wealth and Risk
Irrationality and Biases in Risk Perception
Policy Evaluation
Regulatory Standards
Benefit-Cost Analysis
The Role of Heterogeneity
Uncertainty and Conservatism
The Role of Risk Ambiguity
The. Role of Political Factors
Economic Modeis of Environmental Policies
Voting Patterns
Summary and Overview of Part III
Questions and Problems
Recommended Reading

20 Valuing Life and Other Nonnionetary Benefits
Policy Evaluation Principies
Willingness-to-Pay versus Other Approaches
Variations in the Value of Statistical Life
The Labor Market Model
Empirical Estimates of the Value of Life
Value of Risks to Life for Regulatory Policies
Survey Approaches to Valuing Policy Effects
Valuation of Air Quality
Exploratory Nature of the Survey Approach
Sensitivity Analysis and Cost-Effectiveness
Risk-Risk Analysis
Establishing Prices for Health, Safety, and Environmental Regulation
Questions and Problems

21 Environmental Regulation
The Coase Theorem for Externalities
The Coase Theorem as a Bargaining Game
A Poliution Example
Long-Run Efficiency Concerns
Transaction Costs and Other Problems
Smoking Externalities
Special Features of Environmental Contexts
Siting Nuclear Wastes
Selecting the Optirnal Policy: Standards versus Fines
Setting the Poilution Tax
The Role of Heterogeneity
The Role of Uncertainty
Poliution Taxes
Cosi Heterogeneity for Water Poliution Control
Current Market Trading Policies
The Future of Market Approaches
Global Warming and In-eversible Environmental Effects
Assessing the Merits o! Global Warming Policies
How Should We Reaci to Uncertainty?
Multiperson Decisions and Group Externalines
The Prisoner's Dilemnia
The N-Person Prisuners Dilemnia
Applications of the Prisoner's Dilenuna
The En forcenieni and Performance of Envi ronmen tal Regulation
Enforcenient Options and Consequences
Hazardous Wastes
Contingent Valuation for the Evwn Valdez Oil Spill
The Senior Discounr for the Value of Life
Evaluating Performance
Questions and Problems

22 Product Safety
Emergence of Product Safety Regulations
Current Safety Decisions
Changing Ernphasis of Product Regulation
Prernanufacniring Screening: The Case of Pliarmaceuticais
Weighing the Signilicance of Side Effects
Drug Approval Strategic
The Behavioral Response tu Product Safety Regulation
Consurner's Potential for Muting Safety Device Beneflis
The Cosis o' Product Safety Regulation: The Autornobile Industry Case
Trends in Motor Vehicle and Home Accident Deaihs
Accident Rate influences
The Decline of Accident Rates
The Rise of Product Liability
The Negligence Standard
The Strjct Liability Standard
The Ford Pinto Case
Escalaton of Damages
Risk Information and Haard Warnings
SeIf-Certification of Safe Products
Government Determination of Safety
Alternatives to Direct Comniand and Control Regulation
Regulation through Litigation
Breast Implani Litigation and Regulation
The Future of Produet Safety Policy
Questions and Pro.blerns

23 Regulation of Workplace Health and Safety
The Potential for Inefficiencies
How Markets Can Prornote Safety
Cornpensating Wage Differential Theory
Risk information
On-the-Job Experience and Worker Quit Rates
Inadequacíes in the Market
OSHA's Regulatory Approach
Setting OSHA Standard Leveis
The Nature of OSHA Standards
The Reforrn of OSHA Standards
Regulatory Reform initiatives
Changes in OSHA Standards
OSHA's Enforcernent Strategy
Inspection Policies
Trivial Violations
OSHA Penaities
Enforcement Targeting
The Irnpact of OSHA Enforcernent on Worker Safety
OSHA Regulations in Different Situations
OSHA and Other Factors Affecting Injuries
The Role of Workers' Compensation
Agenda for Policy Reform Efforts
Questions and Problems

24 Patents and Pharmaceuticals
Economics of Invention and Patents
Background on Patents
Incentives to Irivent: Monopoly versus Competition
Welfare Analysis of Patents
Pharmaceuticals and the Role of Patents
Industry Structure
The 1984 Drug Price Competition and Patent Restõration Act
Other Policies That Affect R&D Incentives
Questions and Problems

Author Index
Subject Index

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