Turkish competition law/

por GÜRKAYNAK, Gönenç
[ Livros ]
Autores adicionais: WHISH, Richard ; Prefaciador
Publicado por : Institute of Competition Law - Concurrences, (Nova York:) Detalhes físicos: 516 p. ISBN:9781954750005. Ano: 2021 Tipo de Material: Livros
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Author Biography
Foreword
Introduction
Acknowledgements
List of Abbreviations

Chapter 1— An Overview of Competition Law Enforcement
Gõnenç Gürkaynak, Esq., Efe Oker
1.1 The Roots and Historical Progression of Turkish Competition Law
1.1.1 Constitutionai Basis for Competition Law in Turkey (Article 167)
1.1.2 EU Membership and Shaping the Legislative Framework
1.1.3 Ankara Agreement and EC-Turkey Association Council Decisions
1.1.4 The Introduction of Law No. 4054 and the Founding of the Authority
1.1.5 Summary of Significant Changes in Legisiation and Competition Policy
1.1.5.1 Law No. 4054 Is Finally Revised
1.1.5.1.1 De Minimis Principie
1.1.5.1.2 Commitment and Settlement Mechanisms
1.1.5.1.3 The SIEC Test
1.1.5.1.4 Behavioural and Structural Remedies
1.1.5.1.5 On-Site Inspections
1.1.5.1.6 SeIf-Assessment Principie
1.1.5.2 Recent Changes in Secondary Legislation
1.1.5.2.1 Amendments to Communiqué No. 2010/4
1.1.5.2.2 Introduction of Communiqué No. 2017/3
1.1.5.2.3 Amendments to the Guidelines on Vertical Agreements
1.1.5.2.4 Introduction of Lhe Guidelines on Examination Of Digital Data
1.1.5.2.5 Introduction of Communiqué No. 2021/2
1.1.5.2.6 Introduction of Communiqué No. 2021/3
1.1.5.2.7 Introduction of the Regulation on Settlement Procedure
1.1.5.3 The Authority's Competition Policy in Recent Years
1.2 The Institutional Structure of Turkish Competition Law
1.2.1 The Authority
1.2.1.1 Relationships with Other Competition Authorities
1.2.1.2 Other Work: Publications, Conferences, Sector lnquiries
1.2.2 The Board
1.3 Scope of Turkish Competition Law
1.3.1 Legal Scope
1.3.1.1 Legal Scope Accordmg to Legistation: What Can lhe Authority Act on?
1.3.1.2 Competence and Other Relevant Administrative Authorities
1.3.2 Geographic Scope
1.3.2.1 Geographic Scope in Legislation
1.3.2.2 Geographic Scope in Case Law

Chapter 2 - Articie 4 and Article 5 of the Competition Law: Basic Principies Gõnenç Gürkaynak, Esq., Firat Egrilmez and Aybüke Akdag
2.1 Undertakings and Associations of Undertakings
2.1.1 The Concept of Undertaking
2.1.1.1 Economic Activity
2.1.1.2 Economic Independence
2.1.1.3 Economic Entity
2.1.1.4 Status of State-Owned Entities
2.1.2 Association of Undertakings
2.2 Agreements, Decisions and Concerted Practices
2.2.1 Agreements
2.2.2 Decisions of Associations of Undertakings
2.2.3 Concerted Practices
2.3 Horizontal and Vertical Agreements
2.4 Inter-Brand and Intra-Brand Competition
2.5 De Minimis Concept
2.6 Concepts of Restriction "By Object" and Restriction "By Effect”
2.6.1 By Object Restrictions and Their Evolution in the Case Law
2.6.2 Economic-Based Approach and Effects-Based Analysis
2.7 Criteria for Individual Exemption
2.7.1 lmproving the Production or Distribution of Goods or Promoting Technical or Economic Progress
2.7.2 Consumers Must Benefit From the Efficiency Gains
2.7.3 Should Not Eliminate Competition in a Significant Part oflhe Relevant Market
2.7.4 Should Not Limit Competition More Than What is Necessary

Chapter 3 - Cartels and Tacit Collusion
Gõnenç Gürkaynak, Esq., Hilal Ozçelik Güldeste and Sinan Haluk Tandogan
3.1 A General Overview of Restrictive Agreements Regime
3.2 Cartels
3.2.1 Overview of the Cartel Enforcement Regime
3.2.2 Different Variations of Cartel Agreements
3.2.2.1 Price-Fixing
3.2.2.2 Market Sharing
3.2.2.3 Output Restrictions
3.2.2.4 Bid Rigging (Collusive Tendering)
3.2.3 Leniency Applications in Cartel Agreements
3.3 Tacit Collusion
3.3.1 Oligopolistic Interdependency
3.3.2 Presumption of Concerted Practice

Chapter 4 - Other Horizontal Agreements
Gõnenç Gürkaynak, Esq., Sinem Ugur and Aydeniz Bayta
4.1 Cooperation Agreements and their Assessment
4.1.1 Information Exchange
4.1.1.1 Definition and Scope
4.1.1.2 Assessment under Article 4 of Law No. 4054
4.1.1.3 Assessment Under Article 5 of Law No. 4054
4.1.2 R&D Agreements and Communiqué No. 2016/5
4.1.2.1 Definition and Scope
4.1.2.2 Communiqué No. 2016/5
4.1.2.3 Determination of Relevant Markets
4.1.2.4 Assessment Under Article 4 of Law No. 4054
4.1.2.5 Assessment Under Article 5 of Law No. 4054
4.1.3 Production Agreements and Communiqué No. 2013/3
4.1.3.1 Definition and Scope
4.1.3.2 Communiqué No. 2013/3
4.1.3.3 Determination of Relevant Markets
4.1.3.4 Assessment Under Article 4 of Law No. 4054
4.1.3.5 Assessment Under Article 5 of Law No. 4054
4.1.4 Joint Purchasing Agreements
4.14.1 Definition and Scope
4.1.4.2 Determination of Relevant Markets
4.1.4.3 Assessment Under Article 4 of Law No. 4054
4.1.4.4 Assessment Under Article 5 of Law No. 4054
4.1.5 Commercialisation Agreements
4.1,5.1 Definition and Scope
4.1.5.2 Determination of Relevant Markets
4.1.5.3 Assessment Under Article 4 of Law No. 4054
4.1.5.4 Assessment Under Article 5 of Law No. 4054
4.1.6 Standardisation Agreements
4.1.6.1 Definition and Scope
4.1.6.2 Assessment Under Article 4 of Law No. 4054
4.1.6.3 Assessment Under Article 5 of Law No. 4054
4.2 Horizontal Agreements in Labour Markets
4.2.1 Labour Markets and Competition Law
4.2.2 No-Poaching Agreements
4.2.3 Wage-Fixing Agreements

Chapter 5 - Vertical Agreements
Gnenç Gürkaynak, Esq., Dilara Yeiiyaprak and Asli Su Çoruk
5.1 Types of Vertical Restrictions
5.1.1 Resale Price Maintenance
5.1.1.1 Direct Resale Price Maintenance Practices
5.1.1.2 Indirect Resale Price Maintenance Practices
5.1.1.3 By Object Restriction vs. Effects Based Analysis
5.1.2 Exclusive Distribution
5.1.2.1 Active Sales Bans
5,1.2.1.1 Territorial V Geographical Exclusivity
5.1.2.1.2 Customer Exclusivity
5.1.2.2 Passive Sales Ban
5.1.2.2.1 Export Bans
5.1.2.2.2 Online Sales
5.1.3 Selective Distribution
5.1.4 Single Branding (Non-Compete Obligations)
5.1.5 Obligation to Supply to a Single Buyer
5.1.6 Most-Favoured Nation/Customer Clause
5.1.7 Franchise Agreements
5.1.8 Subcontracting Agreements
5.1.9 Agency Relationship
5.1.10 The Block Exemption Regulation for the Motor Vehicle Sector
5. 1.11 The Block Exemption Regulation on Technology Transfer Agreements

Chapter 6 - Concept of Dominance
Gõnenç Gürkaynak. Esq., Berfu Akgün and Beyza Timur
6.1 Definition of Relevant Markets
6.1.1 Product Market Definition
6.1.1.1 Demand-Side Substitution
6.1.1.2 Supply-Side Substitution
6.1.2 Geographic Market Definition
6.2 Market Power and Dominant Position
6.2.1 The Initial Step: Market Shares
6.2.2 Entry Barriers
6.2.2.1 Legal Entry Barriers
6.2.2.2 Capital Requirement
6.2.2.3 Excess Capacity
6.2.2.4 Product Differentiation and Customer Loyalty
6.2.2.5 Technology Challenges
6.2.2.6 Vertical Integration and Distribution Channels
6.2.2.7 Timespan for Entry
6.2.2.8 Switching Costs
6.2.2.9 Sunk Costs and Network Effects
6.2.2.10 Economies of Scale and Scope
6.2.3 Countervailing Buying Power
6.3 Collective Dominance

Chapter 7 - Abuse of Dominance - Exclusionary Practices
Ginenç Gürkaynak, Esq., Betül Bas Çõmlekçi and Ceren Durak
7.1 Concept of Abuse
7.2 Anti-Competitive Effect
7.3 Objective Justifications and Efficiency Claims
7.4 Exclusionary Practices
7.4.1 Predatory Pricing
7.4.1.1 Concept of Predatory Pricing in Turkish Competition Law
7.4.1.2 Pricing Strategy
7.4.1.3 lntent
7.4.1.4 Possibility for Recoupment
7.4.1.5 Anti-Competitive Effect
7.4.1.6 Objective Justilication
7.4.2 Margin Squeeze
7.4.2.1 Concept of Price/Margin Squeeze in Turkish Competition Law
7.4.2.2 Indispensability
7.4.2.3 Anti-Competitive Effect
7.4.2.4 Objective Justification
7.4.3 Exclusive Dealing
7.4.3.1 Concept of Exclusive Dealing in Turkish Competition Law
7.4.3.2 Anti-Competitive Effect
7.4.3.3 Objective Justification
7.4.4 Rebate Systems
7.4.4.1 Concept of Rebate Systems in Turkish Competition Law
7.4.4.2 Single-Product Rebates
7.4.4.3 Package rebates
7.4.5 Tying
7.4.5.1 Concept of Tying in Turkish Competition Law
7.4.5.2 Two Distinct Products
7.4.5.3 Anti-competitive Effect
7,4.5.4 Objective Justifications
7.4.6 Refusal to Deal
7.4.6.1 Concept of Refusal to Deal in Turkish Competition Law
7.4.6.2 Indispensability
7.4.6.3 Anti-Competitive Effect
7.4.6.4 Consumer Harm
7.4.6.5 Objective Justiflcation
7.4.7 The Relationship Between IP Rights and Article 6
7.4.7.1 Refusal to License
7.4.7.2 Refusal to License and Standard Essential Patents
7.4.7.3 Excessive Pricing
7.4.7.4 Predatory Litigation
7.4.7.5 Discrimination Against Licensees

Chapter 8 - Abuse of Dominance - Exploitative and Discriminatory Practices
Gdnenç Gürkaynak. Esq. and Zeep Ayata Aydogan
8.1 Exploitative Practices
8.2 Concept of Exploitation and Theory of Harm
8.3 Examples
8.3.1 Excessive Pricing
8.3.1.1 Operating at or near Monopolistic Status Where There Are Barriers To Entry
8.3.1.2 Being Subject to or Complying With the Regulation
8.3.1.3 The Test Applied to Decide Whether the Price Is Excessive
8.3.1.4 Remedies Devised When Abuse Fias Been Established
8.3.2 Unfair and Exploitative Contract Terms
8.4 Discrirninative Practices
8.5 Concept of Discrimination and Theories of Harm
8.6 Examples
8.6.1 Practices Leading to Primary Line Injury
8.6.2 Practices Leading to Secondary Line Injury

Chapter 9 - Merger Control: Procedural Aspects
Gdnenç Gürkaynak. Esq. and 1. Baran Can Yildirim
9.1 Jurisdictional Issues
9.1.1 Concept of Control
9.1.1.1 Acquisition of Shares or Assets
9.1.1.2 Contracts
9.1.1.3 Other Means of Control
9.1.2 Sole Control
9.1.3 Joint Control
9.1.3.1 Appointment of Senior Management and Determination of Budget
9,1.3.2 Business Plan
9.1.3.3 Investments
9.1.3.4 Market-Specitic Rights
9.1.4 Turnover-Based Thresholds
9.1.4.1 Calculation Methods
9.1.4.2 Instances of Where There are Two or More Transactions Between the Sarne Parties in the Sarne Relevant Product Market in the Last Three Years
9.1.4.3 Instances Where Two or More Transactions by the Same Undertaking Are Considered as a Single Transaction
9.1.5 Foreign-to-Foreign Transactions
9.1.6 Exceptions
9.1.7 Failure to Notify
9.1.7.1 Monetary Fines
9.1.7.2 Other Possible Consequences of Failure to Notify
9.2 Types of Concentrations
9.2.1 Mergers
9.2.2 Acquisitions
9.2.3 Joint Ventures
9.2.3.1 Full Functionality
9.2.3.1.1 Suflicient Resources to Operate Independently
9.2.3.1.2 Conducting Activities Beyond the One Specific Function for the Parents
9.2.3,1.3 Independence from the Parent Companies in Sale And Purchase Activities
9.2.3.2 Possible Review Under Articles 4 and 5 of Law No. 4054
9.3 Notification and Suspension Requirement
9.3.1 Phase I Review
9.3.2 Phase II Review
9.3.3 Suspension Requirement
9.3.4 Consequences of Violation of the Suspension Requirement
9.3.4.1 Monetary Fine
9.3.42 Legal Consequences If the Transaction Is Not Approved
9.3.4.3 Carve-Out and Hold-Separate Arrangements
9.3.4.3.1PrysmianlDraka
9.3.4.3.2 Bekaertl Pirelli
9.3.4.3.3 APMT/Grup Maritim
9.4 Commitments

Chapter 10 - Merger Control: Substantive Aspects
Gõnenç Gürkaynak, Esq., 1. Baran Can Yildirim, LL.M., Burahan Koroglu, LI-M.,and Uzay Gdrkem Yildiz
10.1 Market Definition for the Substantive Assessment of Concentrations
10.2 Substantive Test
10.2.1 Previously Applied "Dominance" Test
10.2.2 Introduction of the SIEC Test
10.3 The Boarcl's Review of Horizontal Concentrations
10.3.1Market Power
10.3.1,1 Market Share and Concentration Levels
10.3.1.2 Countervailing Buyer Power
10.3.1.3 Barriers to Entry
10.3.2 Anti-Competitive Effects
10.3.2.1 Unilateral Effects
10.3.2.2 Coordinated Effects
10.3.3 Efficiencies
10.3.3.1 Benefit to Customers
10.3.3.2 Failing Firm Defense
10.3.3.3 Other Issues to be Considered
10.3.3.3.1 Transaction specificity
10.3.3.3.2 Verifiability
10.4 Board's Review of Non-Horizontal Concentrations
10.4.1 The Assessment of Market Power in Non-Horizontal Mergers
10.4.2 Anti-Competitive Effects
10.4.2.1 Vertical Concentrations
10.4.2.1.1 Unilateral Effects
10.4.2.1.1.1 lnput Foreclosure
10.4.2.1.1.2 Customer Foreclosure
10.4.2.1.2 Coordinated Effects
10.4.2.2 Conglomerate Concentrations
10.4.2.2.1 Unilateral Effects
10.4.2.2.2 Coordinated Effects
10.5 Remedies and Their Application
10.5.1 General PrincipIes for the Remedies
10.5.2 Structural Remedies
10.5.3 Behavioural Remedies
10.5.4 Board's Power to Apply Remedies
10.6 Sector-Based Assessment of Concentrations
10.6.1 Cement and Ready-Mixed Concrete
10.6.2 Fast-Moving Consumer Goods
10.6.3 Pharrnaceuticals
10.6.4 Telecommunication
10.6.5 Automotive
10.7 Ancillary Restraints

Chapter 11 - Public Enforcement and Procedures
Gnenç Gürkaynak. Esq. and Naz Altinsoy Uçar
11.1 The Authority's Investigative Powers
11.1.1 Ex officio proceedings
11.1.2 Information Requests
11.1.3 On-site Inspections
11.1.3.1 Hard Copy Evidence
11.1.3.2 Digital Evidence.
11.1.3.3 Personal Devices and Correspondences
11.1.3.4 Employer statements
11.1.4 Privilege (Limitations)
11.2 Complaints
11.2.1 The Role of the Applicant
11.2.2 The Rights of the Applicant
11.2.2.1 The Rights of the Applicant During the Initiation Ofan Investigation
11.2.2.2 Rights of the Applicant During the Investigation
11.2.3 Rights of the Complainant After the Final Decision
11.3 Preliminary Investigation
11.4 Investigation
11.4.1 Standard Investigation Procedure
11.4.2 De Minimis Principle
11.4.3 Commitment Procedure
11.4.4 Settlement Procedure
11.5 Oral Hearings
11.5.1 Announcement of the Oral Hearing Meeting and Participants
11.5.2 Meeting Quorum
11.5.3 Publicity of the Hearing
11.5.4 The Oral Hearing Meeting
11.5.5 Submission of Evidence during the Oral Hearing
11.6 Decisions
11.6.1 Meeting and Quorum
11.6.2 Constitutive Elements of Final Decisions
11.7 Leniency Applications
11.7.1 Application Process
11.7.2 Review Process
11.8 Exercise of Defence Rights in the Authority's Proceedings
11.8.1 Burden of Proof
11.8.2 Right to be Heard
11.8.3 Self-Incrimination
11.8.4 Protection of Trade Secrets
11.8.5 Access to the File
11.9 International cooperation

Chapter 12 - Sanctions and the Termination of Infringements
Ginenç Gürkaynak, Esq., Hakan Demirkan, Esma Akta and Uzay Gi5rkem Yildiz
12.1 Principles Regarding Administrative Monetary Fines
12.1.1 Purpose and Scope
12.1.2 Principles Relating to the Determination of Fines
12.1.2.1 Single Continuous Infringement
12.1.2.2 Ne bis in idem
12.1.3 Base Fine
12.1.4 Duratjon of the Violation
12.1.5 Aggravating Factors
12.1.5.1 Recidivism
12.1.5.2 Maintaining the Cartel After the Notification of the investigation Decision
12.1.5.3 Failure to Comply With Commitments
12.1.5.4 Other Aggravating Factors
12.1.6 Mitigating Factors
12,1.6.1 Assisting Examination
12.1.6.2 Encouragement by Public Authorities or Coercion by Other Undertakings
12.1.6.3 Other Mitigating Factors
12.1.7 Draft Reguiation on Fines
12.2 Types of Administrative Fines
12.2.1 Fines Imposed on Procedural Violations
12.2.1.1 Providing False or Misleading Information in Exemption and Negative Clearance Notifications as well as Approval Notifications for Mergers and Acquisitions
12.2.1.2 Completing Merger and Acquisitions that are Subject to the Board's Approval without the Board's Decision
12.2.1.3 Providing Incomplete, False or Misleading Information or Documents, Failure to Provide on Time or not Providing at ali
12.2.1.4 Refusing or Hindering On-site Inspections
12.2.1.5 Failure to Comply With Commitments
12.2.2 Fines on Managers and Employees
12.3 Termination of an Infringement
12.3.1 Opinion Letter under Article 9(3)
12.3.2 Ínterim Measures

Chapter 13 - Judicial Review
Gõnenç Gürkaynak, Esq. and Ali Kagan Uçar
13.1 Nature of the Board's Decisions
13.1.1 Final Decisions
13.1.2 Ínterim Decisions
13.2 Action for Annulment
13.2.1 Competent Courts and Court Hierarchy
13.2.2 Parties
13.2.3 Time Limits for Judicial Review Proceedings
13.2.4 Applicable Procedural Rules
13.2.4.1 Applying to Superior Authorities
13.2.4.2 Jurisdiction in Connected Cases
13.2.4.3 Stay of Execution
13.2.5 Grounds for Annulment
13.2.5.1 The "Subject" Element
13.2.5.2 The "Form" Element
13.2.5.3 The Purpose" Element
13.2.5.4 The "Jurisdiction" Element
13.2.5.5 The "Reason" Element
13.3 Substantive Issues
13.3.1 Individual Exemption
13.3.2 Negative Clearance
13.3.3 Mergers and Acquisitions
13.3.4 No-Go Decision at the End of the Preliminary Investigation Phase
13.3.5Termination of Infringement
13.3.5.1 Behaviourai and Structural Remedies
13.3.5.2 Opinion Letter (Article 9(3) Letter
13.3.5.3 Interim Measure
13.3.6 Periodic Monetary Fine
13.3.7 Final Decision at the end of the Investigation Phase
13.4 Consequences of an Annulment Decision

Chapter 14 - Private Enforcement
Gônenç Gürkaynak, Esq., Tugba Uluay, Górkem Yardim and Büra KiriçiogIu
14.1 Private Enforcement in General
14. 1.1 Legal Nature of Liability Under Competition Law
14.1.2 Types of Breaches and Conditions i.mder the Law No. 4054 for Compensation
14.1.2.1 Compensation for Breaches under Article 4 of the Law. No 4054
14,1.2.2 Compensation of Breaches Under Article 6 of Law No. 4054
14.1.2.3 Compensation of Breaches Under Article 7 of Law No. 4054
14.2 Substantive Conditions for the Claim of Damages
14.2.1 Elements of Compensation
14.2.2 Occurrence and Scope oft the Loss
14.2.2.1 Concept of Loss
14.2.2.2 Determination of Lhe Damages
14.2.2.2.1 Calculation of the Loss
14.2.2.2.2 Establishing the Date of the Damage
14.2.2.2.3 Set-off
14.2.2.2.4 Discretion of The Court on The Amount of Losses
14.2.2.3 Determining the Compensation
14.2.2.3.1 The Amount of Compensation
14.2.2.3.2 Compensation by Treble Damages
14.2.2.4 Existence of an Unlawful Act, Causal Connection and Fault
14.2.2.4.1 Existence of an Unlawful Act
14.2.2.4.2 Existence of Causal Connection
14.2.2.4.3 Existence of Fault
14.3 Procedural Issues in the Claim of Damages
14.3.1 Parties to the Claim
14.3.1.1 Defendants
14.3.1.2 Plaintiffs
14.3.2 Competent Court.
14.3.3 Statute of Limitations (Time Bars)
14.3.4 Issues on Evidence
14.4 Conflicts between Civil and Administrative Procedures regarding
Competition Law Matters

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